SOME OTHER FUZES AND ACCESSORIES

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Russian fuze
OTHER ARMIES WW1 FUZES

Russian WW1 fuzes
Nr 6 GT percussion fuze
22 seconds time and percussion fuze
30 seconds time and percussion fuze
45 seconds time and percussion fuze

Austro-hungarian WW1 fuzes
Austrian fuze M 99
Austrian fuze M 5
Austrian fuze M 8

Italian WW1 fuzes
Various WW1 Italian fuzes and sections
Time and percussion fuze for 65 mm mountain gun

Turkish WW1 fuzes
Turkish fuze 1

OTHER CONFLICTS FUZES
US time or time and percussion fuzes WW2 M54, M55 & M43
Czech 105 & 150 mm WW2 fuze

PLUGS AND ACCESSORIES
Plug with hole for transportation hook
Zamac German plug
Synthetic German plug
Flattened plug
Plug with transport hook
Flat head English plug
English plug-adaptator
French 90mm shell plug
Italian 40mm shell plug

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Other armies WW1 fuzes

Turkish time and percussion fuze


On other parts of the earth than the Western Front, different armies of several countries used several kinds of fuzes, whose principles are very often similar to the one exposed in the other sections of this site.

Needless to say that finding documentation is even more difficult for these 'exotic' fuzes than for the usual western front nations ones. Therefore the descriptions accompaining these items will look really liminar in comparaison with the ones included in the pages dedicated to the other nations.






Russian WW1 fuzes


6 GT Fuze
Percussion fuze type 6 GT

Like most the fighting nations in WW1, Russia had its own artillery munitions system including fuzes. I have little data on this Russian 6 GT percussion fuze. A quick look to the plan found shows a safety system with inertia block and staple, as well as a safety spring. It looks like the starter was projected against a fixed percussion pin at the arrival on the target, right in the middle of the detonator charge.

As far as I can read cyrillic, it looks like it was at least mounted on projectiles of
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 120 pouds M 1877 guns and 190 pounds guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 190 pouds M 1877 heavy guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) M 1909 howitzers
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) M 1910 howitzers


An interesting point about the item shown is that this one fuze has been observed on a western front WW1 battlefield, proving the German Army was using captured Russian guns and ammo in France.


Percussion fuze type 6 GT.
Percussion fuze type 6 GT. Steel and brass body. No markings visible.
Percussion fuze type 6 GT. Front view.
Percussion fuze type 6 GT. That fuze has been observed in Massiges, Champagne (France). It is certainly a munition shot by the German Army with a Russian gun captured on the eastern front
Percussion fuze type 6 GT. Wartime scheme
Percussion fuze type 6 GT. Technical data in Cyrillic - transaltors welcomed...



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22 seconds P or G fuze
Russian 22 seconds aluminium time and percussion fuze (campaign or mountain)

Developped with the help of the French company Schneider, this time and percussion fuze was the most famous member of a family of similarily-shaped fuzes of 22, 30 and 45 seconds. Despite its Russian name '22 seconds aluminium time and percussion fuze', the two rotating discs and the main body part and base were in aluminium but its top part was made in brass.

Under the chinese hat typical shape on the top of the fuze was located the concutor inertia system, classically made of a mobile primer and a static percussion pin only separated at rest by a safety spring and a soft metal protecting sheet. This device allowed to ignite the compressed gunpowder time tracks at the shot departure in the barrel. These tracks were located in the two discs, the upper one being static and the lower one rotating. The rotating disk was graduated from 0 to 140 distance units (unknowned value) with 1 unit steps, but it could also be set on a 'yD' mark for a pure percussion behavior.

The percussion system was located in the fuze tail. It was also pretty classical with a mobile graze pellet containing the primer and a static percussion pin on the bottom side, separated by a strong safety spring. The arming system was made with a safety block preventing any contact at rest between the percussion pin and the primer, that could be masked under the effect of the shot departure inertia forces by compressing a weaker safety spring, and remain such with the help of 'staples'. The tail percussion system could be activated either under the action of the explosion of a gunpowder room located behind the percussion pin and projecting it towards the mobile primer cap when ignited by the time system, and in any case at landing on a target under the action of the shock inertia.

My understanding of the schemes is that holes under the 'chinese hat' also acted as exhausts for the fumes of the concussion and time systems.

This 30-s fuze existed two versions : the 'P' version was dedicated to the field guns ('p' as 'polevaya' - field - in Russian), and the 'G' version to the mountain guns ('g' as 'gornaya' - mountain). It was the typical time and percussion fuzes of the shells of the 3-inches guns of various types :
  • 3 inches (76.2mm) M 1902 Putilov-Schneider field guns
  • 3 inches (76.2mm) M 1904 Obuchov mountain guns
  • 3 inches (76.2mm) M 1909 Putilov-Schneider mountain guns
  • 3 inches (76.2mm) M 1910 mountain guns


22s time and percussion Russian fuze.
22s time and percussion Russian fuze, zoom on the graduations of the lower ring
22s time and percussion Russian fuze, zoom on the top 'chinese hat'
22s time and percussion Russian fuze, one nice condition item seen on 'Delcampe' bidding website
22s time and percussion Russian fuze.
22s time and percussion Russian fuze.
22s time and percussion Russian fuze.
22s time and percussion Russian fuze, wartime scheme
22s time and percussion Russian fuze, technical data - translators welcomed...



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30 seconds fuze
Russian 30 seconds aluminium and brass time and percussion fuze

While the 22 seconds time and percussion aluminium fuze was dedicated to the 3 inches field and mountain guns, the 30 seconds one was designed for the use with the higher calibers of 4.2 inches and 6 inches. This '30 seconds aluminium and brass time and percussion fuze' was deserving this name since, unlike the smaller 22 seconds aluminium time and percussion fuze, it was made with aluminium static and rotating disks assembled on a brass base and body. The top part and hat were still in brass.

The inner organisation of this fuze was similar to the one of the 22 seconds fuze, with a concutor inertia system located under the 'chinese hat', a two discs (one static, one rotating graduated from 0 to 30 seconds with 0,2s steps) time system, and a percussion system located in the fuze tail.

Important differences although were the presence of pyrotechnic amplifiers in some flame transmission channels, and a two needles safety system tha was inserted inside both the top concussion system and the tail percussion system.

The lower cone mounted below the item showned at left and transformed as a trench souvenir inker demonstrates that this fuze was equipping a shell whose caliber was higher than 95 mm, probably a 4.2 inches gun.

This fuze was in use with the shells of the :
  • 42 lines (106.7mm) M 1877 battery guns
  • 42 lines (106.7mm) M 1877 siege and fortress guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 120 pouds M 1877 guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 190 pouds M 1877 heavy guns


One of the items displayed at the left has been mounted as a trench souvenir inker on a marmor plate, the inner concutor and percussion mechanisms being removed, and the brass top part could be opened thanks to the addition of an opening hinge.


Russian time and percussion fuze graduated to 30 seconds.
30s time and percussion Russian fuze
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, opening hinge added for inker mounting
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, detail of the cyrillic markings
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, upper view
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, trench souvenir mounting on a marmor plate
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, old piece seen on an Eastern front battlefield
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, old piece seen on an Eastern front battlefield, dismantled
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, wartime scheme
30s time and percussion Russian fuze, technical data - translators welcomed...



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45 seconds fuze
Russian 45 seconds aluminium time and percussion fuze

The last variety of the Russian time and percussion fuzes series was a consequence of the need to accompany the increase of the range of the corresponding weapons. The flight time offered by the 30 seconds fuze was found insufficient, and a 150% increase of it was reached with this new model. In order to achieve this, the '45 seconds aluminium time and percussion fuze' was added a supplementary disk, making it a 3 disks time and persussion fuze. Thanks to this device, the range of the 152mm guns could progress from 5700 to 7800 meters with shrapnell shells (representing 30% of the ammunitions stocks).

The internal parts and action principles of the 45 seconds fuze were almost identical to the ones of the 30 seconds one, including the presence of the double safety pin (for concutor and percussion systems), with the exception of the 3rd disk addition. As indicated by the fuze name, this formula was back to the materials choice of the 22 seconds fuze with the 3 disks and the fuze body and bas all in aluminium, the lower being graduated from 0 to 45 seconds with 0.2 seconds increments, while the top part remaines in brass.

Most of the Russian fuzes were produced in the Petrograd Pipe Factory that was greatly expanded in 1915 and raised their productivity to very high numers : some non verified sources report in 1916 the incredible numbers for a daily (?!?) production of 25000 22-sec fuzes, 3500 45-sec fuzes, 2000 3GT fuzes and 1500 4GT fuzes

According to the wartime booklet copy I own, these 45 seconds fuzes were used with the shells of the :
  • 42 lines (106.7mm) M 1877 battery guns
  • 42 lines (106.7mm) M 1877 siege and fortress guns
  • 48 lines (122 mm) M 1909 howitzers
  • 48 lines (122 mm) M 1910 howitzers
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 120 pouds M 1877 guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 190 pouds M 1877 heavy guns
  • 6 inches (152.4mm) 200 pouds M 1904 long guns



45s time and percussion Russian fuze.
45s time and percussion Russian fuze. Zoom on the brass top and the large 'Chinese hat'
45s time and percussion Russian fuze, detail of the 3 disks and the brass staple fixing them together (unidentified function)
45s time and percussion Russian fuze, rear view with the sawn tail in the context of the transformation of this fuze into a trench souvenir inker
45s time and percussion Russian fuze, an opening hinge has been added for inker mounting
45s time and percussion Russian fuze, wartime scheme
45s time and percussion Russian fuze, technical data - translators welcomed...



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Austro-Hungarian WW1 fuzes


Austro-Hungarian fuze M99
Time and percussion fuze for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1899 (10cm S.D.Z. 99)

The field Howitzer M 1899 (10cm Feldhaubitze M/99), caliber 104 mm was similar to the German 105 mm Field Howitzer. It was the main Austrian Fieald Artillery howitzer at the beginning of the war.

As most of this nation guns at the beginning of the war, its tube was in bronze. It fired both rear-charge shrapnell shells and high-explosive shells. Both these projectiles were armed with the bronze-made Time and Percussion fuze for 10cm schrapnell shells (10cm S.D.Z. 99) pictured here. The mobile disc was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 4 to 56 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.
A simplified version was created, without the 'K' function, in order to increase the safety (10cm G.D.Z.99).

Austrian fuze M99. Markings '4 W 14'
Austrian fuze M99. The top hole is probably a gas-escaping hole.
Austrian fuze M99. Markings '10cm M99'
Austrian fuze M99. Rear view.
Austrian fuze M99. Wartime scheme.



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Austro-Hungarian fuze M99 M5
Time and percussion fuze for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1905 (S.D.Z.M.5)

The 8cm Mod 1905 field gun (8cm FeldKanone M5 et M5/8) was the main classical gun of the Austrian Field artillery at the beginning of the war. That weapon (with a bronze tube 76.2 mm caliber) fired both high-explosive and schrapnell shells. It is worth noting that the Austrian Schrapnell shells often contained minium, in order to give a red color to the smoke cloud at explosion, well visible on snowy white battlefields.

The schrapnell shells M1905 and M1908 were usually equipped with the time and percussion fuze for schrapnell shell M 1905 (S.D.Z.M.5). The mobile disc of this bronze fuze was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 5 to 61 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.


Austrian fuze M5 - Markings 'M5-9'
Austrian fuze M5
Austrian fuze M5. Rear view.
Austrian fuze M5. Zoom on markings M5 et V
Austrian fuze M5. Wartime scheme.



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Austro-Hungarian fuze M99 M8
Time and percussion fuze for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1908 (S.D.Z.M.8)

The schrapnell shells M1905 and M1908 of the Austrian 8cm Field Gun (8cm FeldKanone M5 and M5/8) were also equipped with the time and percussion fuze for schrapnell shell M 1908 (S.D.Z.M.8). The mobile disc of this bronze fuze was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 6 to 73 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.
It was engraved with 4 little squared rough surfaces allowing an easy manual handling and setting of the fuze, without any tool needed. The upper groove seems to be made to receive a safety pin, but I found no information about that on my documentation.

There was two other versions of that fuze, appeared afetr the beginning of the war and replacing some bronze parts with steel.

Austrian fuze M8. Mounted on a shrapnell shell head.
Austrian fuze M8.
Austrian fuze M8.
Austrian fuze M8. Rear view.
Austrian fuze M8. Wartime scheme



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Italian WW1 fuzes


Italian fuzes
Italian fuzes collection and cut-outs

There is little litterature in French or English on the Italian Artillery material and ordnance, although the equipments were various and typical. Italian Army was using Italian made technology, but also French guns and ammos, as well as captured Austro-Hungarian ones.

A very interesting Italian WW1 fuzes collection in an Italian museum. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair.



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Italian fuze mod 900
Time and percussion fuze Mod 900 for 65/11 mountain gun

The Italian mountain gun of 65 mm Mod 1911 could fire both high explosive and shrapnell shells. These last ones were equipped with the 'Time and percussion fuze Mod 900 for 65/11 mountain gun', named 'Spoletta a doppio Efetto Mod.900 da 65 M'.

I do not own any wartime scheme of that time and percussion fuze but it seems this device, made in aluminium in the case of the one pictured here, is classical design of a 2 disvs fuze. The mobile disc is graduated from 0 to 51 hectometres with 0,5 steps. A cross is marked for the disc position programming a percussion behavior.

It seems the time and percussiob fuze of the 75A field gun was very similar, with graduations from 0 to 55 hectometres ans was named 'Spoletta a doppio Efetto Mod.900 da 75 A'.

Spoletta DE Mod. 900. The lower disk is missing.
Spoletta DE Mod. 900. Original markings : 'OCT 1/15 BA'. This item have been transformed into a war souvenir and is also engraved 'L - Orient 1918 - A'
Spoletta DE Mod. 900. Marking '65 MONT'
Spoletta DE Mod. 900. Mobile disk track
Spoletta DE Mod. 900. Graduations up to 51 hectometres.
Spoletta DE Mod. 900. Disassembled top. View on the first graduations of the disc, starting at 0 hectometres, and the cross indicating the percussion behavior.



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Turkish WW1 fuzes


Turkish fuze
Time and percussion Turkish fuze for 75mm field gun

Thanks to its alliance with Germany, the Turkish army was equipped with modern Krupp guns and ammunitions, and particularly the 75mm field gun Mle 1903. They also had some French Schneider mountain guns...

That fuze is most probably a German design of time and percussion fuze for 75 mm field gun. It is entirely made of brass, and wears arabic characters markings that I cannot decode.

This reminds us that that period of Turkish history happened before Mustapha Kemal took the power and took several modernizing initiatives, including the adoption of the roman characters.

I suppose that fuze had a German counterpart used by the Kaiser Army, but could not find it. I have no idea of the list of guns that used that fuze.

Thread diameter 50 mm.

Turkish fuze mounted as a souvenir with infantry bullets
Turkish fuze - look on the arabic characters used for the time graduations
Turkish fuze. Arabic markings on top
Turkish fuze



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Other conflicts fuzes

Czech fuze developped in 1921 and used in WW2


WW2 stated 21 years after WW1 only. As a consequence, a lot of equipment designed between 1914 and 1918 took part in the operations between 1939 and 1945, and even afterwards.


This is valid for some artillery equipments, and in particular for fuzes.


However a lot of new fuze models were developped, most of the time using the principles of their ancestors of the Great War, before the arrival of moderne electronic fuzes.

This selection shows some examples.






US WW2 time fuzes

The next three fuzes have been observed in the Vosges area, in france, where fight occured in both WW1 and WW2 conflicts

The first fuze is most probably a TSQ M54 fuze. It was a superquick or time action (to 25 seconds) type fuze. Its time system was a classical two-discs pyrotechnic type, and its superquick impact system was a very simple inertia mechanism located at the very top of the cone.

This fuze was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of all calibers, including 75, 90, 105 and 150 mm


The second fuze is most probably a TSQ M55 fuze. It was a special version of the first M54 fuze, but having its booster integrated.

This fuze was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of all calibers.


The third fuze looks like a M43A3 mechanical time fuze. Mechanical fuzes replaced the classic pyrotechnic time fusing system by a clock mechanism, set to count time before explosion. That fuze has no impact element, and is therefore specially well suited for anti-aircraft use.

Its maximum time setting allow a 30 seconds flight before explosion, by increments of 0.2 seconds. The clock mechanism is actuated and driven by the cenrifugal force given by the spin of the shell.

This fuze was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of the :

  • M1 90 mm gun
  • M3 105 mm gun



US fuzes US TSQ M54, TSQ M55, and TM43
US fuzes US TSQ M54, TSQ M55, and TM43
Wartime scheme - US WW2 fuze M54
Wartime scheme - US WW2 fuze M55
Wartime scheme - US WW2 fuze M43



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Time and percussion Czech fuze
DoppZ 10sm vz21

This fuze has been observed in the 'Musée des Abris' in Albert, in the area of the Somme.

It shows several stunning characteristics :
  • impressive dimensions (height and base diameter 80 mm)
  • no visible markings
  • time mechanism (graduated disc) and percussion mechanism (hole at the summit probably made for an instantaneous percussion mechanism)
  • graduations of the time scale unusually extended (from 0 to 250 !)

Two different identification hypothesis have been made on specialised forums : an english time fuze modified for intantaneous percussion mode, or a Czech WW2 fuze for 105mm shells.

This latter identification is the correct one, thanks a JL Decherit for this participation.

It is indeed a time and percussion Czech fuze Dopp Z 10cm vz21 for 105 and 150 mm shells. Its presence on the Somme battlefields reminds us that WW2 also raided these regions, and that the materials of the former Czech army were integrated in the Whermacht during its succesful France Blitzkrieg...




Czech conical fuze graduated up to 250
Czech conical fuze
Czech conical fuze
Czech conical fuze, upper view
Czech conical fuze, view from below
Czech conical fuze, intact item
Czech conical fuze on 105 mm shell, modern drawing from JL Decherit
Czech conical fuze on 150 mm shell, modern drawing from JL Decherit



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Plugs and accessories

Some inert shell plugs


The transportation of the artillery ammunitions from the storage or manufacturing areas to the front line was preferably done separately for the fuzes and the shells, for evident safety reasons.


Therefore, plugs of different shapes and material were used during the shell transportation in order to keep its inner charge safe from humidity. This kind of material could justify a dedicated study in itself.


Here are some examples.



Transportation plug
German (?) plug with transportation hook hole

That plug type has been seen in some museums mounted on German heavy caliber shells. It is a steel piece, with a hole for the introduction of a transportation hook.

The thread diameter is 59 mm

Plug with hole for transportation hook
Plug with hole for transportation hook
Plug with hole for transportation hook



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Transportation plug
German zamac plug

That plug type is often observed in some museums mounted on German minenwerfer shells.

Its material is zamac, a poor alloy of Zinc with Magnesium, Aluminium, and Copper.

The thread diameter is 55 mm.

Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug



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Transportation plug
German synthetic plug

That plug type is often observed in some museums mounted on German minenwerfer shells.

Its material is a light and poorly resistant synthetic black material, explaining the bad condition those plugs are often found nowadays.

The thread diameter is 55 mm.

Synthetic German plug
Synthetic German plug
Synthetic German plug



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Transportation plug
German flat plug

I suppose that plug is German just because its shape has important analogies with typical German fuzes such as GrZ96, 04 ou 14.

Its made with zamac, a poor alloy of Zinc with Magnesium, Aluminium, and copper (this is another clue to its probable German origin).

The thread diameter is 57 mm.

Flattened plug
Flattened plug
Flattened plug



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Transportation plug
Plug with transportation hook

That plug type is often observed on some old pictures mounted on English heavy caliber shells.

It is made of steel, and integrates a transportation hook.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

Plug with transport hook
Plug with transport hook
Plug with transport hook



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Transportation plug
English flat plug

For a long time I thought these pieces were some kind of rear fuzes.

But it is in fact very unharmful English plugs. Their shape is made to take the place of the fuze tail and the detonateor in the shell charge. there are several varieties of that plug, with different head markings and shapes.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug



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Transportation plug
English plug-adaptator

Some english fuzes (particularly the fuze nr 44) had a narrower thread than the shell hole. Therefore, an adaptator had to be used to receive the fuze thread, and then be screwed into the shell larger hole.

An aluminium piece could replace the fuze during transport, so that the adaptator temporarly became a plug.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

English plug-adaptator
English plug-adaptator
English plug-adaptator



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Transportation plug
French 90mm plug

Steel French plug for 90mm shells.

French 90mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
French 90mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
French 90mm plug. It looks like the plugged shell exploded... . Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair



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Transportation plug
Italian 40mm plug

Italian shell 40mm with its transportation plug.

Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair



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