SOME OTHER FUSES AND ACCESSORIES

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Russian fuse
OTHER ARMIES WW1 FUSES

Russian WW1 fuses
Nr 6 GT WW1 Russian percussion fuse
30 seconds WW1 Russian fuse

Austrohungarian WW1 fuses
Austrian fuse M 99
Austrian fuse M 5
Austrian fuse M 8

Italian WW1 fuzes
Various WW1 Italian fuzes and sections

Turkish WW1 fuses
Turkish fuse 1

OTHER CONFLICTS FUSES
US time or time and percussion fuses WW2 M54, M55 & M43
Czech 105 & 150 mm WW2 fuse

PLUGS AND ACCESSORIES
Plug with hole for transportation hook
Zamac German plug
Synthetic German plug
Flattened plug
Plug with transport hook
Flat head English plug
English plug-adaptator
French 90mm shell plug
Italian 40mm shell plug

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Other armies WW1 fuses

Turkish time and percussion fuse


On other parts of the earth than the Western Front, different armies of several countries used several kinds of fuses, whose principles are very often similar to the one exposed in the other sections of this site.

Needless to say that finding documentation is even more difficult for these 'exotic' fuses than for the usual western front nations ones...






Russian ww1 fuses


Russian fuse
Russian percussion fuse type 6 GT

I have little data on this Russian 6 GT percussion fuze. A quick look to the plan found shows a safety system with inertia block and staple, as well as a safety spring. It looks like the starter was projected against a fixed percussion pin at the arrival on the target, right in the middle of the detonator charge.

As far as I can read cyrillic, it looks like it was at least mounted on projectiles of
  • 6 inches 120 pounds and 190 pounds guns (152.4mm)
  • 6 inches M 1909 and M 1910 howitzers (152.4mm)


An interesting point about the item shown is that this one fuze has been observed on a western front WW1 battlefield, proving the German Army was using captured Russian guns and ammo in France.


Fuze type 6 GT. Steel and brass body. No markings visible.
Fuze type 6 GT. Front view.
Fuze type 6 GT. That fuze has been observed in Massiges, Champagne (France). It is certainly a munition shot by the German Army with a Russian gun captured on the eastern front
Fuze type 6 GT. Wartime scheme
Fuze type 6 GT. Technical data in Cyrillic - could someone translate ?



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Russian fuse
Russian time and percussion fuse 30 seconds

Brass and aluminium russian fuse, graduated from 0 to 30 seconds with 0,2s steps. Cyrillic markings 'yD' and 'K'; caracteristic upper hat with its 'Chinese hat', where the percussion system rod pierced with a hole for the safety pin was hidden.

My understanding of the drawings I have (with explanations in... cyrillic russian !) let me think that this top hole was also designed as a emission hole for the combustion gasses emitted by the percussion igniting system.

Time and percussion fuse with classic parts, designed in France. The pyrotechnic percussion igniter mechanism, with starter-bearer inertia rod, was hitting the fixed needle at the shot departure. The flame was then communicated to a two-discs time fusing system, then to the main charge located in the fuse tail. That latter charge could also be ignited at the shot arrival by a classical percussion inertia system located in the tail.

The lower cone mounted below one of the items showned at left lets me suppose that this fuse equipped a shell whose caliber was higher than 95 mm.

I do not know the list of the projectiles calibers that used that fuse, but it was at least mounted on projectiles of
  • 6 inches 120 pounds and 190 pounds guns (152.4mm)


One of the displayed items was mounted as souvenir inker, inner mechanism removed, and with the addition of an opening device and a marmor base.


Russian fuse graduated to 30 seconds
30s Russian fuse, opening added for inker mounting
30s Russian fuse, detail of the cyrillic markings
30s Russian fuse, upper view
30s Russian fuse, souvenir mounting on a marmor plate
30s Russian fuse, old piece seen on an Eastern front battlefield
30s Russian fuse, old piece seen on an Eastern front battlefield, dismantled
30s Russian fuse, wartime scheme
30s Russian fuse, technical data - who could translate ?



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Austro-Hungarian WW1 fuses


Austro-Hungarian fuse M99
Time and percussion fuse for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1899 (10cm S.D.Z. 99)

The field Howitzer M 1899 (10cm Feldhaubitze M/99), caliber 104 mm was similar to the German 105 mm Field Howitzer. It was the main Austrian Fieald Artillery howitzer at the beginning of the war.

As most of this nation guns at the beginning of the war, its tube was in bronze. It fired both rear-charge shrapnell shells and high-explosive shells. Both these projectiles were armed with the bronze-made Time and Percussion Fuse for 10cm schrapnell shells (10cm S.D.Z. 99) pictured here. The mobile disc was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 4 to 56 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.
A simplified version was created, without the 'K' function, in order to increase the safety (10cm G.D.Z.99).

Austrian fuse M99. Markings '4 W 14'
Austrian fuse M99. The top hole is probably a gas-escaping hole.
Austrian fuse M99. Markings '10cm M99'
Austrian fuse M99. Rear view.
Austrian fuse M99. Wartime scheme.



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Austro-Hungarian fuse M99 M5
Time and percussion fuse for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1905 (S.D.Z.M.5)

The 8dm Me 1905 field gun (8cm FeldKanone M5 et M5/8) was the main classical gun of the Austrian Field artillery at the beginning of the war. That weapon (with a bronze tube 76.2 mm caliber) fired both high-explosive and schrapnell shells. It is worth noting that the Austrian Schrapnell shells often contained minium, in order to give a red color to the smoke cloud at explosion, well visible on snowy white battlefields.

The schrapnell shells M1905 and M1908 were usually equipped with the time and percussion fuze for schrapnell shell M 1905 (S.D.Z.M.5). The mobile disc of this bronze fuze was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 5 to 61 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.


Austrian fuse M5 - Markings 'M5-9'
Austrian fuse M5
Austrian fuse M5. Rear view.
Austrian fuse M5. Zoom on markings M5 et V
Austrian fuse M5. Wartime scheme.



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Austro-Hungarian fuse M99 M8
Time and percussion fuse for shrapnell rear-charge shell M 1908 (S.D.Z.M.8)

The schrapnell shells M1905 and M1908 of the Austrian 8cm Field Gun (8cm FeldKanone M5 and M5/8) were also equipped with the time and percussion fuze for schrapnell shell M 1908 (S.D.Z.M.8). The mobile disc of this bronze fuze was engraved with the following markings to give the choice of different functions :
  • Purely time fuze - markings from 6 to 73 hundred meters.
  • Canister - graduation "K" (Kartätschrapnell) - explosion from 5 to 10m from the gun mouth.
  • Delayed canister - graduation "V" (Vortempierung) - explosion at 260 m from the gun mouth.
  • Percussion - graduation "A" (Aufshlag) - explosion at impact.
It was engraved with 4 little squared rough surfaces allowing an easy manual handling and setting of the fuze, without any tool needed. The upper groove seems to be made to receive a safety pin, but I found no information about that on my documentation.

There was two other versions of that fuse, appeared afetr the beginning of the war and replacing some bronze parts with steel.

Austrian fuse M8. Mounted on a shrapnell shell head.
Austrian fuse M8.
Austrian fuse M8.
Austrian fuse M8. Rear view.
Austrian fuse M8. Wartime scheme



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Italian WW1 fuses


Italian fuses
Italian fuzes collection and cut-outs

There is little litterature in French or English on the Italian Artillery material and ordnance, although the equipments were various and typical. Italian Army was using Italian made technology, but also French guns and ammos, as well as captured Austro-Hungarian ones.

A very interesting Italian WW1 fuzes collection in an Italian museum. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair.



Turkish WW1 fuses


Turkish fuse
Time and percussion Turkish fuse for 75mm field gun

Thanks to its alliance with Germany, the Turkish army was equipped with modern Krupp guns and ammunitions, and particularly the 75mm field gun Mle 1903. They also had some French Schneider mountain guns...

That fuse is most probably a German design of time and percussion fuse for 75 mm field gun. It is entirely made of brass, and wears arabic characters markings that I cannot decode.

This reminds us that that period of Turkish history happened before Mustapha Kemal took the power and took several modernizing initiatives, including the adoption of the roman characters.

I suppose that fuse had a German counterpart used by the Kaiser Army, but could not find it. I have no idea of the list of guns that used that fuse.

Thread diameter 50 mm.

Turkish fuse mounted as a souvenir with infantry bullets
Turkish fuse - look on the arabic characters used for the time graduations
Turkish fuse. Arabic markings on top
Turkish fuse



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Other conflicts fuses

Czech fuze developped in 1921 and used in WW2


WW2 stated 21 years after WW1 only. As a consequence, a lot of equipment designed between 1914 and 1918 took part in the operations between 1939 and 1945, and even afterwards.


This is valid for some artillery equipments, and in particular for fuses.


However a lot of new fuse models were developped, most of the time using the principles of their ancestors of the Great War, before the arrival of moderne electronic fuses.

This selection shows some examples.






US WW2 time fuses

The next three fuses have been observed in the Vosges area, in france, where fight occured in both WW1 and WW2 conflicts

The first fuse is most probably a TSQ M54 fuse. It was a superquick or time action (to 25 seconds) type fuse. Its time system was a classical two-discs pyrotechnic type, and its superquick impact system was a very simple inertia mechanism located at the very top of the cone.

This fuse was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of all calibers, including 75, 90, 105 and 150 mm


The second fuse is most probably a TSQ M55 fuse. It was a special version of the first M54 fuse, but having its booster integrated.

This fuse was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of all calibers.


The third fuse looks like a M43A3 mechanical time fuse. Mechanical fuses replaced the classic pyrotechnic time fusing system by a clock mechanism, set to count time before explosion. That fuse has no impact element, and is therefore specially well suited for anti-aircraft use.

Its maximum time setting allow a 30 seconds flight before explosion, by increments of 0.2 seconds. The clock mechanism is actuated and driven by the cenrifugal force given by the spin of the shell.

This fuse was usually used with the high explosive projectiles of the :

  • M1 90 mm gun
  • M3 105 mm gun



US fuses US TSQ M54, TSQ M55, and TM43
US fuses US TSQ M54, TSQ M55, and TM43
Wartime scheme - US WW2 Fuse M54
Wartime scheme - US WW2 Fuse M55
Wartime scheme - US WW2 Fuse M43



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Time and percussion Czech fuse
DoppZ 10sm vz21

This fuse has been observed in the 'Musée des Abris' in Albert, in the area of the Somme.

It shows several stunning characteristics :
  • impressive dimensions (height and base diameter 80 mm)
  • no visible markings
  • time mechanism (graduated disc) and percussion mechanism (hole at the summit probably made for an instantaneous percussion mechanism)
  • graduations of the time scale unusually extended (from 0 to 250 !)

Two different identification hypothesis have been made on specialised forums : an english time fuse modified for intantaneous percussion mode, or a Czech WW2 fuse for 105mm shells.

This latter identification is the correct one, thanks a JL Decherit for this participation.

It is indeed a time and percussion Czech fuse Dopp Z 10cm vz21 for 105 and 150 mm shells. Its presence on the Somme battlefields reminds us that WW2 also raided these regions, and that the materials of the former Czech army were integrated in the Whermacht during its succesful France Blitzkrieg...




Czech conical fuse graduated up to 250
Czech conical fuse
Czech conical fuse
Czech conical fuse, upper view
Czech conical fuse, view from below
Czech conical fuse, intact item
Czech conical fuse on 105 mm shell, modern drawing from JL Decherit
Czech conical fuse on 150 mm shell, modern drawing from JL Decherit



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Plugs and accessories

Some inert shell plugs


The transportation of the artillery ammunitions from the storage or manufacturing areas to the front line was preferably done separately for the fuses and the shells, for evident safety reasons.


Therefore, plugs of different shapes and material were used during the shell transportation in order to keep its inner charge safe from humidity. This kind of material could justify a dedicated study in itself.


Here are some examples.



Transportation plug
German (?) plug with transportation hook hole

That plug type has been seen in some museums mounted on German heavy caliber shells. It is a steel piece, with a hole for the introduction of a transportation hook.

The thread diameter is 59 mm

Plug with hole for transportation hook
Plug with hole for transportation hook
Plug with hole for transportation hook



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Transportation plug
German zamac plug

That plug type is often observed in some museums mounted on German minenwerfer shells.

Its material is zamac, a poor alloy of Zinc with Magnesium, Aluminium, and Copper.

The thread diameter is 55 mm.

Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug
Zamac German plug



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Transportation plug
German synthetic plug

That plug type is often observed in some museums mounted on German minenwerfer shells.

Its material is a light and poorly resistant synthetic black material, explaining the bad condition those plugs are often found nowadays.

The thread diameter is 55 mm.

Synthetic German plug
Synthetic German plug
Synthetic German plug



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Transportation plug
German flat plug

I suppose that plug is German just because its shape has important analogies with typical German fuses such as GrZ96, 04 ou 14.

Its made with zamac, a poor alloy of Zinc with Magnesium, Aluminium, and copper (this is another clue to its probable German origin).

The thread diameter is 57 mm.

Flattened plug
Flattened plug
Flattened plug



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Transportation plug
Plug with transportation hook

That plug type is often observed on some old pictures mounted on English heavy caliber shells.

It is made of steel, and integrates a transportation hook.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

Plug with transport hook
Plug with transport hook
Plug with transport hook



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Transportation plug
English flat plug

For a long time I thought these pieces were some kind of rear fuses.

But it is in fact very unharmful English plugs. Their shape is made to take the place of the fuse tail and the detonateor in the shell charge. there are several varieties of that plug, with different head markings and shapes.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug
Flat head English plug



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Transportation plug
English plug-adaptator

Some english fuses (particularly the fuse nr 44) had a narrower thread than the shell hole. Therefore, an adaptator had to be used to receive the fuse thread, and then be screwed into the shell larger hole.

An aluminium piece could replace the fuse during transport, so that the adaptator temporarly became a plug.

The thread diameter is 50 mm.

English plug-adaptator
English plug-adaptator
English plug-adaptator



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Transportation plug
French 90mm plug

Steel French plug for 90mm shells.

French 90mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
French 90mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
French 90mm plug. It looks like the plugged shell exploded... . Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair



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Transportation plug
Italian 40mm plug

Italian shell 40mm with its transportation plug.

Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair
Italian 40mm plug. Pictures courtesy Luc Malchair



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