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Pascal Casanova work

Percussion fuze GrZ 80 and 82
Percussion fuze HZ 14
Percussion fuze KZ 14
Percussion fuze Gr Z 92
Percussion fuze Gr Z 04
Percussion fuze Gr Z 14
Superquick percussion fuze EHZ 16 bew
Superquick percussion fuze EKZ 17
Superquick percussion fuze Gr Z 17
Percussion fuze for anti-tank shell 'aufschlagzünder mV'

Time and percussion fuze Dopp Z 86
Time and percussion fuze Dopp Z 92
Time and percussion fuze HZ 05
Time and percussion fuze KZ 11 and KZ 11 Gr
Time and percussion fuze LKZ 11 Gr
Time and percussion fuze Dopp Z S 43

Bottom fuse Bd Z 10 (Lg Bd Z 10 & Kz Bd Z 10)
Bottom fuse Spgr.m.K. & m.V.u.K.

Light Minenwerfer fuze l.W.M.ZDr et l.W.M.Zdr.2
Light Minenwerfer fuze A.Z.16
Heavy Minenwerfer fuze Z.s.W.M. 13
Heavy and middle Minenwerfer fuze Z.s.u.m.W.M.

Booby trap very long delay Lgz Z 17 fuze


Pascal Casanova's precision work

Rebuilt Dopp Gr Z 04 fuse

Pascal Casanova is a friend, passionated by the First World War, living in Verdun area. He is a very talented battlefield photograph, but also an expert in Computer Assisted Design. He lets us take advantage of his skill by designing detailed 3D rebuildings pictures of WW1 fuses and shells.

Some words from him, explaining his method to me :

The basic data (parts and functionning) are mainly coming from texts and 2D schematics of the German Artillery Manual of 1918.

I take note of the external dimensions of my fuses collection, as well as some other infos coming from the internet, mainly from your website.

The 2D schematics show the thread diameter. I use that measure to determine an approximative value of the drawing scale. This scale is then used to recompute the dimensions of all the other parts.

I would like to say that I am sometimes forced to imagine the shape of some parts, because I do not have access to all the needed drawings. Any additional information would be welcomed to give some potential improvement to my works.

All the redesigned parts are then assembled one per one to rebuild the fuse. Once the assembly is done, I define a surface aspect that matches the fuse material, to give it a look as close as possible to the reality.

When the fuse is made with all its parts, it is possible to create transparent views, cut views, or even to realize some animated sequences.

The following pictures collection is an extract of his creations.

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German head percussion fuses

Percussion fuze GrZ 80 and GrZ 82

Interesting ancestors of the numerous German WW1 fuzes, the Gr Z 80, Gr Z 82, and Gr Z 82 (Kp) that were mounted on projectiles of the heavy artillery guns and howitzers (15cm and 21cm) are rendered by the magic of the author's 3D know-how. These pieces are rarely seen in collections or museum, so this electronic re-enactment is the best way to observe them 'almost real'.

For more info, have a look to this website page dedicated to the GrZ82 fuzes.

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Percussion fuse HZ14

hz14 fb hz14 vorst hz14 vorst fliehb

Family picture of the famous HZ14 series fuses, that was the classical devices mounted on the 10cm light field howitzers, but enough versatile to be used with explosive shells of other intermediate caliber explosive shells.

From the left to the right, the HZ14 fb (an improved design with a centifugal safety pin), the HZ14 vorst (further design equipped with a safety pin), and the HZ14 vorst fliehb (last design equipped with both a safety pin and a centrifugal safety design).

For more details on these marks, have a look on the HZ14 fuses webpage.

Percussion fuse HZ14 vorst transaprent view.

And now let the magic happen : this HZ14 vorst fuse becomes transparent, and let us see the activation mechanism specific to the German percussion fuses, with the concussion system linked to gun powder room controlling the movement of a safety rod pushing against the inertia block !

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Percussion fuse KZ14

KZ 14 with brass body KZ 14 with aluminum alloy body Virtual cut view

Family picture of another common fuse seen on battlefields, the KZ14 fuses series, dedicated mainly to the 7.7cm fiekdguns. This picture illustrates two of the marks of that fuse made in numerous different materials (steel, aluminum, brass), as well as a cut view showing the security system with compacted gunpowder grain.

More details in the KZ14 fuses page.

Inner mechanism of the KZ 14 fuse

Another impressive translucid view showing the classical german arming system, with a classical inertia block arming piece and the pyrotechnically blocked stem pushing at rest on the inertia starter-bearer.

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Percussion fuse Gr Z 92

Gr Z 92 fuse

The Gr Z 92 is a nice brass fuse, quite rare.

See its description in the Gr Z 92 fuse page.

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Percussion fuse Gr Z 04

Gr Z 04 fuse The fuse mounted on a 210 mm shell

The Gr Z 04 fuse is another item that can be seen quite often on the former battlefields. On the right, it is assembled with a mighty 210 mm explosive shell.

See more details on the Gr Z 04 page.

The transparent view shows the two percussion mechanisms, with and without delay.

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Time and percussion fuze Gr Z 14

Fuze Gr Z 14 nA

Another spectacular rendition showing a common German fuze, the Gr Z 14 under a new vision : a lot of people often forget that most fuzes were usually painted on the entire body or partially

More details on the Gr Z 14 fuzes page.

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Superquick percussion fuze EHZ 16
Empfindlicher Haubitz Zünder 1916 Beweglicher schlagbolzen - Howitzer superquick percussion fuze 1916 with mobile graze pellet

Fusee EHZ 16 Fusee EHZ 16

Triple effect fuze : Percussion, superquick and delayed. It is a HZ16 fuze modification by addition of a removable percussion rod for superquick action.

The percussion rod was not mounted before use, so that the top hole was protected from humidity and foreign bodies introduction by a lead plug equipped with a metallic wire loop allowing its quick removal.

Although the fuze was useable without the percussion rod, the wire loop is bearing a lable with the following instruction : Draht mit platte abreissen. Steckstift einstossen, soweit ungefärbt. Sonst Blindganger. (Tear out the plug with the cable. Insert the percussion rod until the painted section. Or else, misfiring.)

et de l'autre coté: Draht mit platte erst kurz vor Schuss abreissen, da sonst Feuchtigkeit in zünder dringtDraht mit platte erst kurz vor Schuss abreissen, da sonst Feuchtigkeit in zünder dringt (Only remove the cap before firing. Or else the humidity will enter inside the detonator.)

This fuse used to arm the elongated 10, 5 cm shells of the type lg.F.H.Gr., high explosive or blue cross toxic.

More details on this fuse on the EHZ 16 fuze page.

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Superquick percussion fuse EKZ 17

EKZ 17 fuse EKZ 17 transparent view

The EK Z 17 fuse is more rarely encountered on the former battlefields nowadays. Moreover, the surviving items are often heavily damaged and corroded, and the percussion rod is often missing. More details on the EKZ 17 fuses page.

The arming and percussion sequence of the fuze :
EKZ 17 fuse at rest Fuze at rest, the percussion rod is blocked by the centrifugal rod pressed by a spring
EKZ 17 fuse during the flight : centrifugal lock removed Fuze during the flight, the shell spin pushes the centrifugal lock away, freeing the percussion rod movements
EKZ 17 fuse during the flight : zoom on the safety spring Fuze during the flight, zoom on the safety spring at the bottom of the percussion rod, preventing it from being pushed back by the wind
EKZ 17 fuse hitting the target Fuse hitting its objective, the percussion rod compresses the safety spring, and the percussion pins ignites the starter.

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Superquick percussion fuze Gr Z 17

The Gr Z 17 fuze cannot be observed easily nowadays. It was assuperquick percussion fuze dedicated mainly to the 150mm and 210mm heavy howitzers, for high explosive or gaz shells.

Its inertia arming system and its percussion rod system is brilliantly shown in this impressive picture.

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aufschlagzünder mV (fuze for anti-tank shell)

This aufschlagzünder mV equipped the 7,7 cm. K. Gr. 15. m. P shells for anti-tank use, under a steel hat.

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German time and percussion fuses

Time and percussion fuse Dopp Z 86

Dopp Z 92, side viewl Dopp Z 92, rear view

The Dopp Z 86 is the ancestor of most of the German time and percussion fuses found during WW1. Pascal Casanova not only recreated 3D views of that old fuze, but he also wrote a interesting article on it in the Nr 6 edition of 'Tranchées Magazine' (jul-aug-sept 2011)

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Time and percussion fuse Dopp Z 92

Dopp Z 92, side viewl Dopp Z 92, rear view

The Dopp Z 92 fuse is relatively often found nowadays on the former battlefields, most of the time still assembled with the ton part of a schrapnell shell. But it never shines like this one ! More details on the Dopp Z 92 fuse page.

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Time and percussion fuze HZ05

The HZ05 fuze can be found easily in the WW1 battlefields in all of its variants, but most of the time in badly corroded condition since its time rings were made in aluminium. This virtual view let us imagine its aspect. More details on these fuzes on this website page HZ05 Gr fuzes and HZ05 Schr fuzes.

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Fusée à Double effet KZ 11 and KZ 11 Gr

Designed for the universal shells, the KZ 11 fuze is one of the most complex German time and percussion fuzes.

More details on this model on this website related page KZ 11 fuze..

The KZ 11 Gr (Kanonen Zünder 1911 Granate) fuze is a time and percussion fuze without delay.

It was mounted on 7,7 cm Mle 1915 high explosive shells and blue cross elongated 7,7 cm gaz shells. It could also be found on 7,62 cm Flak shells for the Russian 3 inches gun. In this case the fuze is wearing the marking 'K.Z.11 Gr. l.B. o.Az.' and its top is painted red.

The rotating disk is graduated up to 72 hectometers. Some models were only graduated up to 50 and wear a marking 'KB' (Kurze Brennlänge) meaning : short combustion time.

More details on the KZ 11 fuzes page.

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Time and percussion fuze LKZ 11


The elogated time and percussion LKZ 11 fuse is for me one of the most beautiful ones of the German arsenal of WW1. This reconstitution is just convincing me a little more in my feeling. More details on this fuze on the page fuze LKZ 11 Gr.

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Time and percussion fuze Dopp Z S 43

Dopp Z S 43 Dopp Z S 43

This 30mm time and percussion fuze Dopp Z S 43 , graduated from 0 to 43 seconds is pretty rare, and was principally used with German Navy guns (such as the famous 15cm SKL 40), or coast guns. This reconstitution is therefore even more precious.

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German bottom fuses

Bottom fuse Bd Z 10 (Lg Bd Z 10 and Kz Bd Z 10)

Bd Z 10 : the fuse main body Kz Bd Z 10 : body screwed in a short detonator (25 grammes picric acid) Lg Bd Z 10 : body screwed in a long detonator (100 grammes picric acid)

The bottom fuse Bd Z 10, preferred German fuse for the 150, 210 and 280 mm calibers, existed in two main marks, screwed either on a short detonator, with 25 grammes of picric acid, or on a long one, with 100 grammes of picric acid. It was then respectively named Kz Bd Z 10 or Lg Bd Z 10. For more details please go to the Bd Z 10 fuse page.

Transparent view of the Lg Bd Z 10 mark

This time the fuse transparent view, here in its long LgBdZ10 mark, shows a very complex internal mechanism.

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Bottom fuse Spgr.m.K and m.V.u.K.

Bd Z f Spgr m K fuse Bd Z f Spgr m V u K fuse, mark with a delay

The bottom fuse Bd Z f Spgr m.K. equipped the shells of the famous long range 380 mm heavy guns, as well as the 280, 240, and some 210 mm shells. There was a mark with a short delay, named Bd Z f Spgr m.V.u.K..

The arming and percussion sequence of the fuse :
Fuse Spgr m.K. at rest Fuse at rest, the centrifugal locks are blocked by the locking rod
Fuse Spgr m.K. at the shot departure : locking rod desactivated Fuse at the shot departure, the locking rod is pushed ahead by the pressure of the combustion gases on a rear membrane
Fuse Spgr m.K. during flight : centrifugal locks pushed away Fuse during the flight, the centifugal locks are pushed away
Fuse Spgr m.K. hitting the target Fuse hitting its objective, the percussion pin hits the starter.

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German Minenwerfer fuzes/h2>

Fuze for light Minenwerfer IWMZdr2


The l.W.M.Zdr and Zdr2 fuzes are used on light trench bombs (leichte Sprengmine), filled with high explosive or gaz. The Zdr2 differs from the Zdr by the presence of a two rods safety pin, and a gaine screwed on the fuze tail equipped with a detonator.

These fuzes head has a top socket allowing the introduction of a special key in order to extract the bomb from the tube in the case of a misfire. This socket is also used for the fixing of a light-hiding cap for the models not equipped with a top head screw.

More details on the lWMZdr and lWMZdr2 fuzes page.

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Aufschlagzünder 1916 für leichte Wurfmine (Percussion fuze model 1916 for light trench mortar bomb)


This fuze is designed for the bombs of the 7,6 cm trenc mortar, high explosive or gaz filled.

The bad inflight stability of these projectiles induced the need for the development of this fuze equipped with a percussion system that will operate whenever the shell falls on its head, base or any other direction at impact.

The fuze head is made of zinc. The exploder contains an approximate 17 gr picric acid charge.

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Fuze for heavy Minenwerfer Z.s.W.M. 13

This fuze for 25 cm heavy trench mortar bomb "Zünder schwerer Wurf-Mine" is a time and percussion fuze. The percussion fuze with two opposite pins can operate the projectile burst whenever it falls on its head or on its base. It was always used in the percussion mode.

The time system was set with a combustion time longer than the shell flight time, so that it will operate afetr landing in the case of a percussion system malfunction.

This fuze has been replaced by the Z.s.u.m.W.M. fuze.

More details on the ZsWM page.

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Fuze for heavy and middle Minenwerfer Z.s.u.m.W.M.

The Z.s.u.m.W.M. (Zünder schwerer und mittlerer Wurfmine) fuze was inherited from the Z.s.W.M. (Zünder schwerer Wurfmine).

Initially designed solely for the middle 17cm trech mortar bombs, it was then marked 'Z.m.W.M.' (Zünder mittlerer Wurfmine). It was afterwards used too for the 25 cm heavy trechn mortar bombs.

This fuse wass of course only intended for a percussion behaviour. The time system is set in order to burst the shell in the case of a misfire of the percussion system.

It could also be used on 18 cm smooth body toxic bombs (glatte Gasmine) used in the smooth bore bronze mortar model 1915 (Glatter Minenwerfer), and in the Gaswerfer 17 pour for salvo gaz bombing.

The fuzes used for this salvo toxic bombing generally were modified with the addition of a percussion system blocking screw.

This screw was marked 'Fest' (Fix) and an arrow showing the direction of the blocking br>
More details on the ZsumWM page.

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German special fuzes

Booby trap very long delay Lgz Z 17 fuz

Lgz Z 17 - external view and bulb Lgz Z 17 - cut-through Lgz Z 17 - wartime scheme

Lgz Z 17 - schéma d'époque

The system presented on this section is uncommon. This Lgz Z 17 ("Langzeit Zünder 1917") fuze has been developped by Germans in 1917 in order to booby trap the artillery ordnance abandoned on the battlefields.

This fuze percussion device is blocked by a steel wire going through a copper container. When the divice needs to be used, the container is filled with a corrosive liquid designed to attack the steel wire. When the wire is broken, a spring throws the percussion pin on the starter, triggering the detonator explosion. These devices were very similar to the original GrZ04 fuzes they were "imitating". The only clues to reckognize them was the fact the detonator was vernished in red (instead of blue), and the lack of a needle hit to block the fuze thread on the shell head...

When mounting the 'fuze' on a shell, one had to unthread the detonator as wella s the starter-bearer plug, and remove the safety device (brass ring and wooden disk). Then the fuze head and the container plug had both to be removed, so that the corrosive liquid contained into a separate glass bulb could be poured.

These 'fuzes' were conditioned by two in a box marked in red font with the identification on the devices and the mention "Nicht verfeuern ! Nur für besondere Zwecke !" that is : Do not shoot ! Only for special uses !

Each box contained two cardboard boxes with four corrosive liquid glass bulbs. Thes bulbs were marked 1, 2, 24 or 72, corresponding to the delay in hours. Each bow was also containing a small saw for cutting the bulbs.

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